It happened Wednesday just after noon along a trail beside Horsehead Creek off of County Road 3151, west of Clarksville.
The Johnson County Sheriff's Office (JCSO) says Thomas Edward (Eddie) Sears, 43, of Coal Hill, died at the scene.
Witnesses say that a homeowner was sitting in a swing in his backyard when he saw movement across the creek from his house. He grabbed a 30-30 rifle and fired one shot at what he thought was a deer. After the shot was fired, he and other witnesses heard someone yell.
The man went to investigate and found Sears lying on the trail about 144 yards from his home. He ran back to the house and called 911, bringing deputies and paramedics to the scene.
The man's body has been sent to the Arkansas State Crime Laboratory for an autopsy.
The JCSO, Arkansas State Police and Arkansas Game and Fish Commission are involved in the investigation.
Deputies say Sears, who was not wearing any hunter safety clothing and had no weapon, was apparently not hunting. It's unknown why he was walking along the wooded trail.